Sapphires are one of the ‘Big Three Gemstones’, alongside emeralds and rubies. They’re formed from a mineral called corundum. They exist in blue, pink, green, yellow, orange, purple, colourless and black. We call sapphires that aren’t blue, black or colourless “fancy sapphires” or “party sapphires”. The only colour that sapphires do not come in is red. Red corundum
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The name sapphire is derived from the Latin word “saphirus” and the Greek word “sapheiros,” both meaning blue. Some believe that the name sapphire is derived from its association with the planet Saturn. The name can roughly be translated to mean “dear to the planet Saturn”. Blue sapphire is a compound of aluminum and oxygen.